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medical illustration of Occasionally during delivery, if a baby loses station, it may be necessary to apply a vacuum to assist in delivery medical illustration of Occasionally during delivery, if a baby loses station, it may be necessary to apply a vacuum to assist in delivery

Vacuum assist / stations of fetal descent

Occasionally during delivery, if a baby loses station, it may be necessary to apply a vacuum to assist in delivery

Keywords: Medical Malpractice, Medical-Legal, Obstetrics / Gynecology, Legal Exhibits

© Christine Gralapp
medical illustration of When the umbilical cord prolapses, it can be compressed by the infant's head at the time of delivery.  This compression can cut off fetal/maternal blood exchange. medical illustration of When the umbilical cord prolapses, it can be compressed by the infant's head at the time of delivery.  This compression can cut off fetal/maternal blood exchange.

Prolapsed umbilical cord

When the umbilical cord prolapses, it can be compressed by the infant's head at the time of delivery. This compression can cut off fetal/maternal blood exchange.

Keywords: Medical Malpractice, Medical-Legal, Obstetrics / Gynecology, Legal Exhibits

© Christine Gralapp
medical illustration of The complexity of the fetal / maternal interface at the placenta is important for juries to understand.  This illustration details the different components of placental circulation. medical illustration of The complexity of the fetal / maternal interface at the placenta is important for juries to understand.  This illustration details the different components of placental circulation.

Fetal / Maternal Circulation

The complexity of the fetal / maternal interface at the placenta is important for juries to understand. This illustration details the different components of placental circulation.

Keywords: Color, Medical Malpractice, Patient Education, Medical-Legal, Obstetrics / Gynecology, Legal Exhibits

© Christine Gralapp
medical illustration of Nuchal cord is a condition that can distress the fetus when the umbilical cord becomes entangled an is stretched medical illustration of Nuchal cord is a condition that can distress the fetus when the umbilical cord becomes entangled an is stretched

Nuchal cord

Nuchal cord is a condition that can distress the fetus when the umbilical cord becomes entangled an is stretched

Keywords: Medical Malpractice, Medical-Legal, Obstetrics / Gynecology, Legal Exhibits

© Christine Gralapp
medical illustration of Fibroids and distorted pelvic anatomy medical illustration of Fibroids and distorted pelvic anatomy

Uterus with fibroid and distended vein

Fibroids and distorted pelvic anatomy

Keywords: Medical Malpractice, Medical-Legal, Legal Exhibits

© Christine Gralapp
medical illustration of Carotid artery aneurysms can be managed in several ways.  Here, I am depicting a clip and a coil. medical illustration of Carotid artery aneurysms can be managed in several ways.  Here, I am depicting a clip and a coil.

Management of carotid artery aneurysms

Carotid artery aneurysms can be managed in several ways. Here, I am depicting a clip and a coil.

Keywords: Medical Malpractice, Medical-Legal, Legal Exhibits

© Christine Gralapp
medical illustration of The tonsil of the inferior cerebellum can become entrapped in the foramen magnum medical illustration of The tonsil of the inferior cerebellum can become entrapped in the foramen magnum

Chirari Malformation in cerebellum of the brain

The tonsil of the inferior cerebellum can become entrapped in the foramen magnum

Keywords: Medical Malpractice, Medical-Legal, Neurosurgery, Legal Exhibits

© Christine Gralapp
medical illustration of The patient was had chemotherapy applied directly into the rectum to treat rectal cancer.  The complaint was that the treatment moved retrograde into the transverse colon to injure the bowel proximally.  This illustration demonstrates that when the patient was elevated properly, gravity and peristalsis would prevent the treatment from passing into the upper colon. medical illustration of The patient was had chemotherapy applied directly into the rectum to treat rectal cancer.  The complaint was that the treatment moved retrograde into the transverse colon to injure the bowel proximally.  This illustration demonstrates that when the patient was elevated properly, gravity and peristalsis would prevent the treatment from passing into the upper colon.

Large bowel configuration

The patient was had chemotherapy applied directly into the rectum to treat rectal cancer. The complaint was that the treatment moved retrograde into the transverse colon to injure the bowel proximally. This illustration demonstrates that when the patient was elevated properly, gravity and peristalsis would prevent the treatment from passing into the upper colon.

Keywords: Medical Malpractice, Medical-Legal, Gastroenterology

© Christine Gralapp
medical illustration of L5 is displaced anteriorly, causing injury to the caudal spinal cord fibers medical illustration of L5 is displaced anteriorly, causing injury to the caudal spinal cord fibers

Spondylolisthesis

L5 is displaced anteriorly, causing injury to the caudal spinal cord fibers

Keywords: Medical Malpractice, Medical-Legal, Neurosurgery

© Christine Gralapp
medical illustration of PICC line placed in brachial vein medical illustration of PICC line placed in brachial vein

PICC line

PICC line placed in brachial vein

Keywords: Medical Malpractice, Medical-Legal, Vascular Surgery, Legal Exhibits

© Christine Gralapp
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Christine Gralapp Medical Illustration

medical illustration of Occasionally during delivery, if a baby loses station, it may be necessary to apply a vacuum to assist in delivery
medical illustration of When the umbilical cord prolapses, it can be compressed by the infant's head at the time of delivery.  This compression can cut off fetal/maternal blood exchange.
medical illustration of The complexity of the fetal / maternal interface at the placenta is important for juries to understand.  This illustration details the different components of placental circulation.
medical illustration of Nuchal cord is a condition that can distress the fetus when the umbilical cord becomes entangled an is stretched
medical illustration of Fibroids and distorted pelvic anatomy
medical illustration of Carotid artery aneurysms can be managed in several ways.  Here, I am depicting a clip and a coil.
medical illustration of The tonsil of the inferior cerebellum can become entrapped in the foramen magnum
medical illustration of The patient was had chemotherapy applied directly into the rectum to treat rectal cancer.  The complaint was that the treatment moved retrograde into the transverse colon to injure the bowel proximally.  This illustration demonstrates that when the patient was elevated properly, gravity and peristalsis would prevent the treatment from passing into the upper colon.
medical illustration of L5 is displaced anteriorly, causing injury to the caudal spinal cord fibers
medical illustration of PICC line placed in brachial vein

Biography

Juries appreciate clear, easy-to-parse graphics in support of complex medical concepts. The challenge of communicating visually to juries and other audiences has been my passion since graduating from University of California, San Francisco with a Master’s Degree in Medical and Biological Illustration. I am proud to say that every case I have illustrated has either prevailed for my client or settled. I specialize in anatomy and surgery of the Head and Neck, but am competent in all areas. I am the primary medical illustrator for Stanford University Department of Head and Neck surgery. My business is focused in the San Francisco Bay Area, and I serve an international clientele. It would be my pleasure to consult on your bioscientific visualization project!

Style/Techniques

Color

Subject/Specialties

Gastroenterology, Neurosurgery, Obstetrics / Gynecology, Vascular Surgery, Legal Exhibits