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Tim Fitzgerald

Memory Depotentiation at the Synapse 

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Chlorpyrifos

medical illustration of This image generalizes the electrochemical steps involved in memory depotentiation at the synapse between neurons. A stimulus activates NMDAR, which then permit calcium entry into the cell. As the cell depolarizes, VGCC activates and allows more calcium to flow into the cell. This intracellular calcium-oscillation mobilizes proteins that will eventually cause the cell to degrade the AMPA receptors by means of endocytosis.
Next medical illustration of This is an image of conotoxin and an inset of how it affects a voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC). Conotoxin is a peptide toxin created by a tropical marine snail (Conus victoriae). Aside from VGCCs, the toxin also targets voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Conotoxins are being explored as an option for pain-relief therapy.

Conotoxin

This image generalizes the electrochemical steps involved in memory depotentiation at the synapse between neurons. A stimulus activates NMDAR, which then permit calcium entry into the cell. As the cell depolarizes, VGCC activates and allows more calcium to flow into the cell. This intracellular calcium-oscillation mobilizes proteins that will eventually cause the cell to degrade the AMPA receptors by means of endocytosis.

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© Tim Fitzgerald