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Bacteriophages 

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RNA Polymerase

Next medical animation of William Kaelin, Peter Ratcliffe, and Gregg Semenza received the 2019 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for illuminating the molecular switch responding to hypoxia. The molecular machinery explains how multicellular animals tune their physiology to cope with varying quantities oxygen. The image shows how Heterodimeric HIF-1a:ARNT complex binding to the HRE on DNA (pdb: 4ZPR).

HIF-1a in complex with ARNT on DNA

Bacterial viruses are called phages or bacteriophages. They only attack bacteria; Phages stick to bacteria with their leg-like fibres, which triggers their shaft to ram a needle into the bacterial hull. This punctures the bacterial envelope and injects the genetic material. Phage components are assembled within the cell before it ruptures to release a new wave of phages – killing further bacteria. Researchers immediately realised phages could help to fight bacterial infections.

Keywords: Color, 3D, Models, Video, Research, Biology, Biotechnology, Molecular Biology, Virology, Pathology

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